Age of Revolution – Timeline

1700................................................Bourbons replace Hapsburgs as royal family in Spain. 1763................................................French and Indian (Seven Years’) War ends; westward migration in 13 colonies banned. 1764................................................English Parliament passes Sugar Act. 1765................................................English Parliament passes Stamp Act. 1766................................................Stamp Act repealed. 1767................................................English Parliament passes Townshend Acts. 1768................................................British troops sent to Boston. March 5, 1770.................................Boston Massacre. December 16, 1773........................Boston Tea Party. 1774................................................First Continental …

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Revolutions Made and Unmade

In this outline, we return to the “big picture” of the age of revolutions. We look at the general processes across all of the Americas and compare all the revolutions. In particular, the outline focuses on how the differing colonial traditions (political, economic, and cultural) shaped the revolutionary paths and the outcomes of the wars …

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The Strange Case of Paraguay

Paraguay is perhaps the most unusual country in Latin America in the 19th century. Isolated deep in the interior of South America, it was largely populated through the creation of Jesuit missions in the 17th and 18th centuries. Ostensibly under the control of the viceroyalty of La Plata at the beginning of the 19th century, …

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Mexico – Empire and Chaos

In the aftermath of the specter of social revolution and racial war raised by the Hidalgo and Morelos revolts, Spaniards and Creoles closed ranks in Mexico to preserve peace. As they had in 1810, events in Europe sparked the second war for independence. When the supporters of a liberal constitution triumphed in Spain in 1820, …

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Mexico – Race and Class Warfare

The war for Mexican independence took place in two stages. This outline looks at the first stage, a race and class war that began in 1810. One of the two core regions of the Spanish American Empire, Mexico was rich in silver and Indian labor. A small elite of Spaniards (Creoles and Peninsulars) ruled over …

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Liberating Peru

The first war for independence in Spanish America barely touched Peru. As in Mexico, the Creole elites in Peru feared the specter of Indian uprisings and were reluctant to challenge Spanish authority. The liberation of Peru, the great Spanish stronghold in South America, would come from two directions: led by Simón Bolívar from the north …

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Bernardo O’Higgins and Chile

The great military hero of Chilean independence is Bernardo O’Higgins (1778–1842), the illegitimate son of the Irish-born former viceroy of Peru. The first part of this outline looks at O’Higgins and his emergence as a leader in Chile after 1810. The middle section looks at the virtual civil war in Chile as Creoles vied for …

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