Age of Revolution – Timeline

1700................................................Bourbons replace Hapsburgs as royal family in Spain. 1763................................................French and Indian (Seven Years’) War ends; westward migration in 13 colonies banned. 1764................................................English Parliament passes Sugar Act. 1765................................................English Parliament passes Stamp Act. 1766................................................Stamp Act repealed. 1767................................................English Parliament passes Townshend Acts. 1768................................................British troops sent to Boston. March 5, 1770.................................Boston Massacre. December 16, 1773........................Boston Tea Party. 1774................................................First Continental …

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Revolutions Made and Unmade

In this outline, we return to the “big picture” of the age of revolutions. We look at the general processes across all of the Americas and compare all the revolutions. In particular, the outline focuses on how the differing colonial traditions (political, economic, and cultural) shaped the revolutionary paths and the outcomes of the wars …

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Brazil: A Royal Revolution?

The path to independence in Brazil was similar to that of Spanish America but with important differences. Rather than fall under the control of Napoleon, the Braganza royal family fled Portugal in late 1807 and took up residence in Rio de Janeiro. For 13 years, the monarchy ruled its vast empire from Brazil. King João …

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Napoleon Invades Spain and Portugal

Although the processes of modernization and reform set the stage for the wars for independence, it was the Napoleonic wars, and more specifically, Napoleon’s invasion of Spain, that triggered the wars for independence in Spanish America. This outline first looks at the rise of Napoleon and his efforts to dominate Europe. We then closely examine …

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Colonial Empires on the Eve of Revolution

Between 1492 and 1750, European powers invaded and conquered much of the Americas. The Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English had carved out large colonial empires from the Arctic to Patagonia, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This article surveys those colonial empires, their dimensions, and key characteristics in 1750. In the century and a half …

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Origins of Revolution in the Atlantic World

By the beginning of the 18th century, the Americas, Europe, and Africa formed part of a world intimately connected by the exchange of peoples, goods, and ideas across the Atlantic Ocean. In this article, we look at the most important transformations that shaped that Atlantic world by the middle of the 18th century. The Enlightenment …

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