The Aftermath of Independence

In this final outline, we come back to a larger vision of the Americas in the aftermath of the wars for independence. The outline begins with the key concepts of revolution and wars for independence and reemphasizes the complex nature of the different wars for independence, as well as their common patterns. Within a half …

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Mexico – Empire and Chaos

In the aftermath of the specter of social revolution and racial war raised by the Hidalgo and Morelos revolts, Spaniards and Creoles closed ranks in Mexico to preserve peace. As they had in 1810, events in Europe sparked the second war for independence. When the supporters of a liberal constitution triumphed in Spain in 1820, …

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The Radicalism of the American Revolution

The “meaning” of the American Revolution has been hotly debated for more than 200 years. For some, it is a conservative effort by planters to seize power and control the development of a society already divided between slaves and free men, whites and non-whites, and the landed and the landless. For others, it represents a …

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From Lexington and Concord to Yorktown

This outline covers the fighting during the American Revolution from Lexington and Concord to the British surrender at Yorktown in 1781. The victory of the American colonists is an extraordinary story of a small group of colonials challenging and defeating the most powerful empire in the world. This victory was made possible by the larger …

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