The Case for Reparations

The Case for Reparations by Ta-Nehisi Coates - The Atlantic: Two hundred fifty years of slavery. Ninety years of Jim Crow. Sixty years of separate but equal. Thirty-five years of racist housing policy. Until we reckon with our compounding moral debts, America will never be whole. Clyde Ross was born in 1923, the seventh of …

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The Many Councils of Christ: How Christianity was Created in Closed-door Meetings

Christianity was created and defined by men in closed-door meetings. Below is a chronology of some important Councils which gave us the version of Christianity that we know today: Council of Elvira (304) was the first written mandate requiring priests to be celibate. It also made laws with maintained the separation of Jews and Christians. E.g. Christians …

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Napoleon Invades Spain and Portugal

Although the processes of modernization and reform set the stage for the wars for independence, it was the Napoleonic wars, and more specifically, Napoleon’s invasion of Spain, that triggered the wars for independence in Spanish America. This outline first looks at the rise of Napoleon and his efforts to dominate Europe. We then closely examine …

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The Athletes of God

Before the conversion of Constantine, martyrs and confessors (those who professed their Christian faith to Roman officials in the expectation of martyrdom) were Christianity’s heroes and spiritual elite. Martyrdom and openly professing one’s faith before Roman officials were supremely meritorious actions. They were the equivalent of a second baptism, fully atoning for a person’s past …

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Jesus Outside the Bible: Part 3 – Pliny, Tacitus and Suetonius

There are three Greco-Roman pagan passages extremely important to the defenders of the Christian myth. They are the works of three major non-Christian writers of the late 1st and early 2nd centuries – Tacitus, Suetonius, and Pliny the Younger. Let’s closely examine these passages and see why they cannot serve us as justification for reliable …

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Jesus Outside the Bible: Part 1 – Historical Silence

“Apart from the New Testament writings and later writings dependent on these, our sources of information about the life and teaching of Jesus are scanty and problematic” - F.F. Bruce, New Testament History. “The only definite account of his life and teachings is contained in the four Gospels for the New Testament, Matthew, Mark, Luke …

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The History of “I Do’s”

There is a much quoted line in Latin poetry: Bella gerant alii, tu felix Austria nube, which roughly translates to “Let others make war; you, fortunate Austria, marry”. This is the motto of one of Europe’s greatest dynasties: The House of Habsburg. [1] Through a series of strategic marriage arrangements, the Habsburgs brought Burgundy, Spain, …

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