Age of Revolution – Timeline

1700................................................Bourbons replace Hapsburgs as royal family in Spain. 1763................................................French and Indian (Seven Years’) War ends; westward migration in 13 colonies banned. 1764................................................English Parliament passes Sugar Act. 1765................................................English Parliament passes Stamp Act. 1766................................................Stamp Act repealed. 1767................................................English Parliament passes Townshend Acts. 1768................................................British troops sent to Boston. March 5, 1770.................................Boston Massacre. December 16, 1773........................Boston Tea Party. 1774................................................First Continental …

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Revolutions Made and Unmade

In this outline, we return to the “big picture” of the age of revolutions. We look at the general processes across all of the Americas and compare all the revolutions. In particular, the outline focuses on how the differing colonial traditions (political, economic, and cultural) shaped the revolutionary paths and the outcomes of the wars …

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Napoleon Invades Spain and Portugal

Although the processes of modernization and reform set the stage for the wars for independence, it was the Napoleonic wars, and more specifically, Napoleon’s invasion of Spain, that triggered the wars for independence in Spanish America. This outline first looks at the rise of Napoleon and his efforts to dominate Europe. We then closely examine …

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The Haitian Revolution

In August 1791, thousands of slaves rose up in Saint Domingue, led by a voodoo high priest named Boukman, in a war for their freedom. Over the next decade, the revolt destroyed the power of white planters and their estates and laid waste to the French colony. Amidst the violence, a group of charismatic black …

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Slave Rebellion in St. Domingue

The Haitian Revolution is the only successful slave rebellion in the Americas. This outline and the next analyze the only case of slaves rising up, taking power, and creating an independent nation. We begin with an overview of the rise of Saint Domingue as the classic example of the sugar and slave plantation complex in …

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From Lexington and Concord to Yorktown

This outline covers the fighting during the American Revolution from Lexington and Concord to the British surrender at Yorktown in 1781. The victory of the American colonists is an extraordinary story of a small group of colonials challenging and defeating the most powerful empire in the world. This victory was made possible by the larger …

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Colonial Empires on the Eve of Revolution

Between 1492 and 1750, European powers invaded and conquered much of the Americas. The Spanish, Portuguese, French, and English had carved out large colonial empires from the Arctic to Patagonia, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This article surveys those colonial empires, their dimensions, and key characteristics in 1750. In the century and a half …

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