Africa’s Odious Debts: How Foreign Loans and Capital Flight Bled a Continent

JAMES K. BOYCE, DEVELOPMENT, PEACEKEEPING AND ENVIRONMENT PROGRAM, PERI Institute LEONCE NDIKUMANA, PROF. ECONOMICS, UMASS AMHERST A new book titled Africa's Odious Debts: How Foreign Loans and Capital Flight Bled a Continent begins its conclusion with the following. During the past four decades, sub-Saharan Africa has experienced a financial hemorrhage. We estimate that from the …

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Age of Revolution – Timeline

1700................................................Bourbons replace Hapsburgs as royal family in Spain. 1763................................................French and Indian (Seven Years’) War ends; westward migration in 13 colonies banned. 1764................................................English Parliament passes Sugar Act. 1765................................................English Parliament passes Stamp Act. 1766................................................Stamp Act repealed. 1767................................................English Parliament passes Townshend Acts. 1768................................................British troops sent to Boston. March 5, 1770.................................Boston Massacre. December 16, 1773........................Boston Tea Party. 1774................................................First Continental …

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The Aftermath of Independence

In this final outline, we come back to a larger vision of the Americas in the aftermath of the wars for independence. The outline begins with the key concepts of revolution and wars for independence and reemphasizes the complex nature of the different wars for independence, as well as their common patterns. Within a half …

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Napoleon Invades Spain and Portugal

Although the processes of modernization and reform set the stage for the wars for independence, it was the Napoleonic wars, and more specifically, Napoleon’s invasion of Spain, that triggered the wars for independence in Spanish America. This outline first looks at the rise of Napoleon and his efforts to dominate Europe. We then closely examine …

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