Age of Revolution – Glossary

Articles of Confederation: Document produced by the Continental Congress in 1777 as the charter setting out the relationship of the 13 colonies as parts of a new nation. Ayacucho: Last major battle in the wars for independence in Spanish America, where José Antonio Sucre defeated the royalist forces in southern Peru. Boston Massacre: Killing of …

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Age of Revolution – Timeline

1700................................................Bourbons replace Hapsburgs as royal family in Spain. 1763................................................French and Indian (Seven Years’) War ends; westward migration in 13 colonies banned. 1764................................................English Parliament passes Sugar Act. 1765................................................English Parliament passes Stamp Act. 1766................................................Stamp Act repealed. 1767................................................English Parliament passes Townshend Acts. 1768................................................British troops sent to Boston. March 5, 1770.................................Boston Massacre. December 16, 1773........................Boston Tea Party. 1774................................................First Continental …

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The Aftermath of Independence

In this final outline, we come back to a larger vision of the Americas in the aftermath of the wars for independence. The outline begins with the key concepts of revolution and wars for independence and reemphasizes the complex nature of the different wars for independence, as well as their common patterns. Within a half …

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Revolutions Made and Unmade

In this outline, we return to the “big picture” of the age of revolutions. We look at the general processes across all of the Americas and compare all the revolutions. In particular, the outline focuses on how the differing colonial traditions (political, economic, and cultural) shaped the revolutionary paths and the outcomes of the wars …

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Failed Movements in the Caribbean

We have now seen about a dozen cases of successful wars for independence from Britain, France, Spain, and Portugal. Some of the American colonies, however, did not achieve independence in the age of revolution. Some chose not to rebel, or the uprisings were weak and relatively easily crushed. In this outline, we will look at …

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Brazil: A Royal Revolution?

The path to independence in Brazil was similar to that of Spanish America but with important differences. Rather than fall under the control of Napoleon, the Braganza royal family fled Portugal in late 1807 and took up residence in Rio de Janeiro. For 13 years, the monarchy ruled its vast empire from Brazil. King João …

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Mexico – Race and Class Warfare

The war for Mexican independence took place in two stages. This outline looks at the first stage, a race and class war that began in 1810. One of the two core regions of the Spanish American Empire, Mexico was rich in silver and Indian labor. A small elite of Spaniards (Creoles and Peninsulars) ruled over …

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